Supplementary_Material_1 (Protocol): The influence of sample quantity and lysis parameters on the success of ancient DNA extraction from skeletal remains
Supplementary Figure 1: Representative bones used in the present studies. The extended sampling sites are due to previous studies. The upper image shows the left femur (GS97) of an individual from the skeletal series of Goslar from the Early Modern Age (250 BP). The image below shows the left femur (DO902.01) of an individual from the burial site Lichtenstein cave from the Bronze Age (3000 BP). Both individuals were male, which means that both X and an Y chromosomal signals are expected to be present in the nuclear DNA.
Supplementary Figure 2: Histological thin sections of the samples. The image on the left shows the microstructure of the compact bone of GS97; the microstructure of DO902.01 is presented on the right. Both microstructures appear to be perfectly intact and do not reveal evidence of extended microbial colonization. Also, there are no indications of extensive chemical decomposition. Therefore, a high quality of DNA can be expected.
Supplementary Table 1: Genetic fingerprints of GS97 and DO902.01.
Supplementary Table 2: Experimental design (4x5) for sample amount and lysis duration. The green colour shows the parameters used in the pre-test.
Supplementary Figure 3: Allelic range of the sequences amplified by the heptaplex-kit. The autosomal STR systems are presented with their respective fragment length and their arrangement in different colour panels.
Supplementary Table 3: Primer pairs of Heptaplex PCR for Amelogenin and the autosomal STRs.
Supplementary Table 4: Reagents used for heptaplex PCR.
Supplementary Table 5: PCR Cycling Parameters.
Supplementary Table 6: Primer sequences for the amplification of HVR II.
Supplementary Table 7: PCR Cycling Parameters.
Supplementary Table 8: Parameters for the Taq-Cycle-Sequencing.
Supplementary Materials 2: Results of nuclear DNA analysis
Supplementary Table 10: Consensus of the autosomal STR analysis of the DO902.01 nuclear DNA.
Supplementary table 11: Number of determined alleles for GS97 and DO902.01.