TB de Castria received support from Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Eli Lilly, Genentech/Roche, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Merck KGaA, Merck Sharp & Dohme. JJ Harding receives research support from Bristol Myers Squib, Boehringer Ingelheim, Calithera, CytomX, Eli Lilly, Genoscience, Loxo, Novartis, Pfizer, Polaris, Yiviva and Zymeworks and consulting support from Adaptimmune, Bristol Myers Squibb, CytomX, Eli Lilly, Exelixis, Hepion, Merck, Medvir,Tempus, QED and Zymeworks. DN Khalil receives consulting fees from AbbVie and Psioxus and holds intellectual property interests related to CD40 and in situ vaccination and intellectual property rights associated with Merck Sharp & Dohme. EM O’Reilly and GK Abou-Alfa receives research support from Arcus, Astra Zeneca, BioNtech, BMS, Celgene, Flatiron, Genentech/Roche, Genoscience, Incyte, Polaris, Puma, QED, Silenseed and Yiviva and consulting support from Adicet, Alnylam, Astra Zeneca, Autem, Beigene, Berry Genomics, Boehringer Ingelheim, Celgene, Cend, CytomX, Eisai, Eli Lilly, Exelixis, Flatiron, Genentech/Roche, Genoscience, Helio, Helsinn, Incyte, Ipsen, Merck, Nerviano, Newbridge, Novartis, QED, Redhill, Rafael, Servier, Silenseed, Sobi, Vector and Yiviva. GK Abou-Alfa has a patent (PCT/US2014/031545) filed on March 24, 2014, priority application serial no.: 61/804,907; filed: March 25, 2013. The authors have no other relevant affiliations or financial involvement with any organization or entity with a financial interest in or financial conflict with the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript apart from those disclosed.