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Supplementary Figure S1. Extracellular metabolites of endophytic fungi from Azadirachta indica inhibit MDR bacteria and phytopathogens.

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posted on 20.05.2021, 08:43 by Topu Raihan, Md Abul Kalam AzadMd Abul Kalam Azad, Jahed Ahmed, Mukhlesur Rahman Shepon, Prattay Dey, Nandan Chowdhury, Md. Toasin Hossain Aunkor, Md Hazrat AliMd Hazrat Ali, Sabrina Suhani

Aims: To evaluate antimicrobial activity of extracellular metabolites (EM) of endophytic fungal isolates (EFI) from Azadirachta indica.

Methods: EFI were identified by ITS sequencing. Antimicrobial activity, and MIC and MBC were determined using agar diffusion and microdilution method, respectively.

Results: Seventeen EFI were isolated from different organs of Azadirachta indica. Eight of them were identified based on ITS sequencing. The EM of EFI inhibited the growth of six MDR bacterial superbugs and three phytopathogenic fungi. The MDR bacterial superbugs are resistant to six commercial antibiotics of different generations but susceptible to EM of EFI. The MIC (0.125 to 1.0 µg/µL), MBC (0.5 to 4.0 µg/µL) and MFC (1.0 to 4.0 µg/µL) of the EM from EFI are lower enough.


This work was partially supported by a grant in aid (LS/2020/1/17) from the Research Centre, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet, Bangladesh.