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Graphene oxide-induced, reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial dysfunctions and apoptosis: high-dose toxicity in normal cells - supplementary figures

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posted on 2023-07-20, 09:14 authored by Ameer A Imarah, Majid S Jabir, Ali H Abood, Ghassan M Sulaiman, Salim Albukhaty, Hamdoon A Mohammed, Riaz A Khan, Hayder M Al-Kuraishy, Ali I Al-Gareeb, Waleed K Al-Azzawi, Mazin A A Najm, Sabrean F Jawad

Aim: The cytotoxic effects of graphene oxide nanoparticles (GONPs) using MTT assays, observance

of apoptotic markers, and oxidative stress were outlined. Materials & methods: Rat embryonic

fibroblasts (REFs) and human epithelial breast cells (HBLs) were used at 250, 500 and 750 μg/ml

concentrations. Results: Significant cytotoxic and apoptotic effects were observed. Analyses of CYP2E1

and malondialdehyde concentrations in REF and HBL-100 cell lines after exposing to GONPs confirmed

the nanomaterials toxicity. However, the glutathione levels in REF and HBL-100 cell lines showed a

substantial reduction compared with the control. The cytochrome CYP2E1, glutathione, malondialdehyde

and caspase-3 alterations provided a plausible interlinked relationship. Conclusion: The study confirmed

the GONPs cytotoxic effects on REF and HBL-100 cell lines. The outcome suggested caution in wide-spread

applications of GONPs, which could have implications for occupational health also.