GDF-15 and soluble ST2 as biomarkers of right ventricular dysfunction in pulmonary hypertension Supplementary Figure 1E
Background: This study analyzed the utility of soluble ST2 (sST2) and GDF-15 as biomarkers of right ventricular (RV) function in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Methods: GDF-15 and sST2 serum concentrations were measured in patients with PH (n = 628), dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 31) and left ventricular hypertrophy (n = 47), and in healthy controls (n = 61). Results: Median sST2 and GDF-15 levels in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy were higher than in patients with PH and dilated cardiomyopathy. In tertile analysis GDF-15 >1363 pg/ml and sST2 >38 ng/ml were associated with higher N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, RV systolic dysfunction, RV-pulmonary arterial uncoupling and hemodynamic impairment. Conclusion: GDF-15 and sST2 are potential biomarkers of RV dysfunction in patients with PH.