This research was funded in part through the NIH/NCI Cancer Center Support Grant P30 CA008748 (PI Thompson). Competing interests: KR Tringale reports grant funding for an unrelated study from the Radiological Society of North America. ASB Warner reports provision of services for Iovance Biotherapeutics, Inc. and Novartis. MA Postow reports consulting fees received from BMS, Merck, Array BioPharma, Novartis, Incyte, NewLink Genetics, Aduro, Eisai and Pfizer. MA Postow has received honoraria from BMS and Merck. MA Postow has received institutional support from RGenix, Infinity, BMS, Merck, Array BioPharma, Novartis and AstraZeneca. NS Moss reports consulting fees from AztraZeneca. RR Sehgal, AS Reiner and K Panageas have no relevant disclosures to report. The authors have no other relevant affiliations or financial involvement with any organization or entity with a financial interest in or financial conflict with the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript apart from those disclosed. No writing assistance was utilized in the production of this manuscript.