An Improved Oral Nutraceutical-Based Intervention for Management of Obesity: Pterostilbene Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles Supplementary Fig S1
Aim: To formulate and assess the oral anti-obesity effect of polymeric-based Pterostilbene(PS)-nanoparticles.
Methods: Pterostilbene-hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex-loaded in chitosan-nanoparticles (PS/HPβCD-NPs) were prepared and characterized in-vitro. Cytotoxicity, pharmacokinetics and anti-obesity effects were assessed on Caco-2 cell line and high fat diet-induced obesity. In-vivo assessment included histological examination, protein and gene expression of obesity biomarkers in adipose tissues.
Results: Safe PS/HPβCD-NPs were successfully prepared with improved bioavailability compared to free PS. PS/HPβCD-NPs showed improved anti-obesity effect supported by histological examination, lipid profile, UCP1 gene expression and protein expression of SIRT-1, COX-2, IL-6 and leptin.
Conclusion: Orally administered PS nanoparticles is a new and promising anti-obesity strategy owing to its sustainable weight loss and minimal side effects which is of great socio-economic impact.
Supplementary figure 1: Transmission electron microscope of a) Unloaded NP and b) Pt/HPβCD loaded NP at magnification 25,000x. The scale bar represents 200 nm.
Supplementary figure 2: a) Cellular uptake of free C6, C6/HPßCD complex and C6/HPßCD-loaded NP (100 ng/mL C-6) in caco-2 cells using confocal laser microscopy and b) Quantitative analysis of fluorescence intensity using Image J. Statistical significance was shown at ***p≤0.001 and ****p≤0.0001 when compared to free C-6.
Supplementary figure 3: a) Serum lipid profile in rats of different experimental groups where b) VLDL-C , c) LDL/HDL ratio and d) Total cholesterol were calculated and plotted against time (4, 8 and 16 weeks). Each point represents the mean ± SD of 8 samples. Statistical significance is shown where ****p≤0.0001, ***p≤0.001, **p≤0.01 and *p≤0.05 when samples when compared to untreated HFD groups.